Potted flowers are restricted by specific environmental conditions and when the potting soil cannot sustain the normal growth of the flowers, there will be yellowing of the leaves, weak branches and small flowers and fruits, thus reducing the ornamental value, which requires frequent fertilisation. However, the type of fertiliser and the method of fertilisation should be decided according to the variety of flowers, their habit, the purpose of fertilisation and the missing elements.
Fertilisers commonly used for potted flowers are divided into two categories: organic and inorganic fertilisers.
(1) Organic fertilisers are made from the remains of plants and animals after decay and fermentation. Organic fertilizers are also known as complete fertilizers, which not only contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, three important elements needed for the growth and development of flowers, but also contain other large amounts of elements, trace elements and growth stimulating substances, of which a large amount of organic matter decomposition produces organic acids, which can dissolve calcium phosphate and other difficult to dissolve fertilizers. The humus in organic matter can improve the soil structure, increase the fertility, water retention and permeability of the soil, and has the advantage of long-lasting and soft fertilisation. However, organic fertilisers are slow to work, difficult to source and more difficult to process.
Organic fertilisers are usually divided into animal and plant-based organic fertilisers.
(1) Animal organic fertilisers, such as human faeces and urine, livestock manure, feathers, hoof and horn, bone meal, fish and eggs and other household waste.
②Plant-based organic fertilisers, such as soya bean cake and other cake fertilisers, sesame paste residue, leaf weeds, green manure, herbal residue, etc.
The two types of organic fertilisers mentioned above usually have a higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content than plant-based fertilisers, and a longer fertilising effect; plant-based fertilisers are softer. Their common characteristic is that, regardless of any time and any application method, must be fully fermented and decomposed to no bad smell before application. Otherwise, not only will it not work as a fertiliser, it will also "burn the roots" and affect the normal growth of flowers.
(2) Inorganic fertilizers are mainly commercial chemical fertilizers such as urea, ammonium sulphate, calcium superphosphate, etc. Grass ash is a natural inorganic fertiliser. Inorganic fertilisers have the characteristics of simple fertiliser, fast fertiliser effect, not lasting, easy to lose, etc. They can easily cause short-term growth of potted flowers, and the dosage is not easy to grasp, and if used in improper concentration in potted flowers, it often leads to plant death. The types of inorganic fertilisers are as follows.
Nitrogen fertilizers: urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, etc.
Phosphate fertilisers: calcium superphosphate, phosphate powder, etc.
Potassium fertilisers: potassium chloride, potassium sulphate, etc.
Potassium phosphate is a highly effective phosphate and potassium fertiliser.
In the process of fertilising flowers, organic and inorganic fertilisers have their own advantages and disadvantages and should be used in conjunction with each other, alternatively. The key to fertilising potted flowers is, firstly, that the soil must be rich in organic matter to moderate the violence of the fertiliser. At the same time, according to the fertilising habits of different flowers and different stages of cultivation, the fertilising properties and dosage must be strictly controlled. There are also compound fertilizers, which are made of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and certain trace elements, mixed in certain proportions with granular fertilizers as well as tablets and rods of fertilizers prepared in recent years around the world, when using them, we must first understand the composition and role of fertilizers
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