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Precautions for tea planting

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What kind of fertilizer do I need to grow tea?

1. Organic fertilizer is a traditional fertilizer used in tea gardens, especially for organic tea and pollution-free tea, organic fertilizer is used as the main fertilizer. Adequate organic fertilizer can increase the yield and quality of tea, which has long been proven in the production practices of the main tea producing areas. The annual output of tea plants with organic fertilizers not only increases year after year, but also the new shoots have less cellulose, the new shoots mature and harden later, the buds and leaves are good, and the content of amino acids, tea polyphenols, catechins, and caffeine are significantly increased. , The aroma components of tea are improved, and the proportion of upper and middle tea is significantly increased. Moreover, the adequate application of organic fertilizer in tea gardens can also improve the soil, facilitate the growth of tea roots, and enhance the resistance of tea plants. For young tea gardens, the source of organic fertilizer can choose to plant green manure between the tea trees for 3 consecutive years. Plowing twice a year can meet the growth needs of young tea trees, and it can also mature the tea garden soil naturally. After the tea garden is put into production, the annual amount of organic fertilizer applied per mu of tea garden is 150-200 kg of cake fertilizer or 500 kg of barn manure or 200-300 kg of commercial organic fertilizer with 45% organic matter content. Plow into the soil.

2. Nitrogen is the main structural element of amino acids and proteins in all living organisms. It is involved in almost every process of individual development on the earth. The economic products of leaf-picking crops of tea crops are mainly tea buds and young leaves, and the growth of a large number of these new organs requires a large amount of nitrogen to participate in protein synthesis and tissue structure. Therefore, an adequate supply of nitrogen is not only an important basic material for the normal development of tea plants, but also an important material basis for the formation of tea production. In addition, the level of nitrogen nutrition also has a direct impact on the quality of tea, because many of the ingredients in tea that affect the color, aroma and taste of tea belong to nitrogen-containing organic matter. Under normal circumstances, a mature tea garden aged 6-8 years, when the amount of pure nitrogen applied per year is 12.5 kg/mu, the yield increase effect is obvious.

3. It is difficult for tea plants to absorb phosphorus, and the utilization rate is lower than that of nitrogen and potassium. However, phosphorus is one of the important nutrients of tea plants. It participates in the composition of many extremely important compounds, such as nucleic acid and cell membrane phospholipid structure. Phosphorus is also a plant. One of the most important elements in the material and energy metabolism during the growth and development process, it participates in many physiological processes in the plant, such as nitrogen metabolism, enzymatic reaction, energy transfer, photosynthesis, etc.; Phosphorus can improve the quality of tea, especially the aroma and Two aspects of taste also play an important role. Therefore, the rational application of phosphate fertilizer is an important measure to improve the yield and quality of tea. Adult tea gardens apply 50 kilograms of superphosphate with organic fertilizer every autumn and winter, and spray 60 kilograms of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 500 times on each batch of tea leaves before germination and during the growing season to meet the demand for tea production.

4. The content of potassium in tea plants is second only to nitrogen. It exists in ionic form in tea plants. Although it does not participate in the composition of organic matter, it is a promoter and regulator of various physiological activities, especially many of its participation. Enzymatic reactions are directly related to the growth and development of tea plants. Agricultural production praises the quality element of "potassium" because the synthesis of most quality components in agricultural products requires the participation of potassium. For example, the content of nerolithol, the main aroma component of oolong tea, is consistent with the application of potassium. The range is proportional to the relationship. Therefore, in the production of oolong tea, the importance of potassium fertilizer is even greater than that of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer. Therefore, in order to ensure both high yield and quality of tea, the annual potassium fertilizer application rate of adult tea gardens is generally not less than 5 kg/mu.

5. Although there are not many trace elements in plants, they all have their special nutritional effects and cannot be replaced by other elements. For example, manganese is an essential element to maintain the structure of tea chloroplasts; iron is the main component of photosynthetic active components cytochrome F and ferredoxin; molybdenum is a component of nitrate reductase and participates in nitrogen metabolism in tea; copper is the body of tea A variety of oxidase components can regulate the fermentation process of black tea; zinc is involved in the synthesis of tea auxin. When there is a lack of trace elements, the metabolic process in the tea plant will be hindered, and in severe cases, the yield and quality of tea will be affected. With the continuous increase in tea production and the large-scale application of chemical fertilizers, the demand for trace elements in tea plants is becoming increasingly urgent. Of course, although trace elements are indispensable to the production of tea, the demand is very small. Therefore, it can be supplemented and corrected by applying trace element foliar fertilizer, and spraying 1,000 times of the trace element foliar fertilizer in commercial products per mu every year Liquid 2-3 times can basically avoid the effects of various element deficiency.

How to fertilize?

One of the keys to the high-quality and high-yield cultivation of tea is the balanced supply of nutrients. The method of supplementing the nutrition of tea trees is still achieved through fertilization. The level of fertilization is often an important indicator to consider the level of tea quality management. Therefore, scientific, planned, and balanced fertilization is a homework for all tea garden managers. Mastering the scientific fertilization time and fertilization methods can improve fertilizer utilization. Rate and control the production cost of tea gardens can also increase the yield and quality of tea and achieve economic benefits.

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