1. After watering the vegetables or when it rains, apply fertilizer on the border or between the rows of plants. This method is relatively simple, saves time and labor, but the utilization rate of fertilizer is low, and volatilization will lose part of the fertilizer. In particular, ammonium bicarbonate is extremely volatile and is not recommended for spraying; urea, ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate can be sprayed when the field is inconvenient to operate and vegetables are in urgent need of fertilizer. Do not sprinkle on the surface of the leaves when spreading, so as to avoid the leaves.
2. Flush with water Before watering vegetables, sprinkle fertilizer in the ditch so that the fertilizer will melt into the soil with the water. With this fertilization method, on the one hand, there will be part of the loss due to volatilization, and on the other hand, part of it will leak into the deep layers of the soil with water, which cannot be absorbed and utilized because the roots of vegetables cannot reach it. The advantage is that the method is simple and the amount of labor is small. It can be used as a top dressing method when large areas of vegetables are seriously lacking in fertilizer and are not convenient for burying. Dissolve the fertilizer before flushing, and then flush with water.
3. Drip irrigation fertilization Its characteristics are: after a certain kind or several kinds of vegetable fertilizers need to pass through the drip irrigation filtration system, the dissolved fertilizer will automatically enter the soil around the vegetable roots with the drip irrigation. At the same time, the mulching film is used, and the fertilizer is almost non-volatile and no loss. It not only saves fertilizer and water, saves labor and effort, but also can fertilize according to the main components and characteristics of fertilizer. It is currently a relatively advanced fertilization method. The disadvantage is that it needs to have supporting drip irrigation and water supply equipment, and has a strict mulching film, as well as the determination of the nutrient level in the soil, and the investment is relatively high.
4. Mechanical deep application. Mechanical deep application includes deep application of basal fertilizer before vegetable cultivation and burying of topdressing during cultivation. Generally, furrow application, hole application and strip application are adopted. After applying organic fertilizer or chemical fertilizer, it will be finely raked and leveled. This method requires less fertilizer distribution, but has a large amount of labor and is inconvenient to operate. Use burial between plants and rows. Because the fertilizer is concentrated, the depth is large, and the root is too close to the root, it is easy to damage the root system. The application period is generally used when the growth of vegetables is not large, but in actual production, the peak of vegetable growth is often the peak of water and fertilizer requirements. Therefore, when the burying method is used during the period of higher temperature, in order to prevent negative effects, burying After that, water must be watered to reduce the concentration of soil fertilizer.
5. Foliar fertilization In addition to paying attention to timely topdressing to supplement nutrient deficiency in the process of vegetable production and management, it can also be combined with spraying to prevent pests and diseases for multiple foliar fertilization. This method has fast fertilizer effect and low dosage, and is an economical and effective method of fertilization. The effect is more obvious when the plant is senescent, the root system is damaged and the absorption capacity is insufficient, or when the nutrient deficiency is severe. In addition to the commonly used macro-element fertilizers such as urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and compound fertilizers, many manufacturers have also developed micro-fertilizer or amino acid fertilizers suitable for foliar Tiancheng Liquid, etc., have certain effects. However, it must be pointed out that the nutrient elements needed for the growth and development of vegetables mainly come from soil fertilization. Foliar fertilization can only be used as an auxiliary measure.
6. Nutrient solution fertilization Nutrient solution fertilization is based on the different types of vegetable crops and different growth periods to prepare nutrient solutions by dissolving various nutrient element compounds in water to provide nutrients for crop growth. Generally There will be no loss of fertilizer and water waste. Compared with soil cultivation, the effect of saving fertilizer and water is very obvious. And implement modern equipment management, which greatly saves labor. The difficulty is that in the process of preparing the nutrient solution, all the nutrient elements (including trace elements) required for the growth and development of a certain vegetable crop must be combined. Since the fertilizer source is mainly chemical fertilizer, it must be calculated and reasonably configured, and the pH and total salt content of the nutrient solution must always be adjusted to maintain the chemical balance of the nutrient solution.